Active and passive safety of vehicles

Active safety systems, also referred to as driver assistance systems, help to prevent accidents from occurring in the first place. Active safety promotes accident prevention. By contrast, passive safety systems provide protection during a collision in order to mitigate the consequences of an accident.


In an audit, external (or internal) experts examine whether certain laws, regulations, and policies were adhered to.

Auxiliary consumer

Auxiliary consumers include all of a vehicle’s components that are not needed for the drive system, but that nevertheless consume energy. Examples include the air conditioning and heating systems.


Biocides are chemicals used to control pests.

Capacity building

Capacity building refers to measures that boost people’s or organizations’ problem-solving abilities in developing countries and emerging markets. Examples include training courses for suppliers.


CDP (formerly Carbon Disclosure Project) is an independent non-profit organization that promotes the disclosure of environmental data by companies and municipalities. Its members include several hundred major investors. Since its establishment in 2000, the CDP has created the biggest database of its kind in the world.

CER units

Certified Emission Reduction (CER) units are awarded by the United Nations to projects that help reduce CO2 in developing countries. Companies can purchase these units to offset their CO2 emissions.

CO2 fleet value

The CO2 fleet value refers to the average emissions from the new vehicles that are registered in a given year for a particular manufacturer. This value can be given for specific model series, product units, brands, business units or regions. An example of this is the new car fleet value for Europe, which is indicated in g CO2/km.


CO2-neutral means that a certain process (e.g. the production of a vehicle) has no impact on the CO2 concentration in the atmosphere. This can be achieved by means of carbon offset projects Gold Standard. Such projects can involve the planting of trees, for example, in order to offset the CO2 emissions created during vehicle production.

Design for Environment (DfE)

Design for Environment is a concept that aims to reduce the environmental impact of products, processes, and services.


A vehicle’s drivetrain includes all of the components that provide the power for propulsion. Besides the engine, these components include the clutch, the transmission, and the wheels, for example.

Driving mode recorder

The law requires conditionally and highly automated vehicles to have a driving mode recorder in Germany. If there is an accident, the recorder makes it possible to determine who was steering the vehicle at the time: a human driver or the system.


E-fuels are synthetic fuels that are produced with the help of electricity from water and carbon dioxide (CO2).

Electrical architecture

The term electrical architecture refers to the technical design of an electrically powered vehicle. It includes the specifications for the voltage level of the battery and the electronic parts as well as for the software for operating the components.


The EQ series is the new product brand for electric mobility from Mercedes-Benz. Its product portfolio ranges from electric vehicles and wallboxes to charging services and home energy storage devices.

Euro 6d-Temp standard

The Euro 6d-Temp standard is an emissions standard that has applied to new vehicle models since September 2018 and sets limits for pollutant emissions into the atmosphere. The RDE procedure was introduced at the same time as the new standard. The more stringent Euro 6d emissions standard will go into effect in 2021.

Fuel cell

A fuel cell can convert the chemical reaction energy of a fuel (e.g. hydrogen) and an oxidizer (generally oxygen) into electricity. This electricity can be used to power an electric motor, for example. A fuel cell vehicle that runs on hydrogen does not emit carbon dioxide or nitrogen oxides.

Futures market

On the futures market, goods, securities, and currencies can be bought at a specified price or exchange rate for delivery at a predetermined time in the future. Companies use this market to hedge against price fluctuations.

General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR)

The General Data Protection Regulation was issued by the European Union. It contains rules for the processing of personal data and harmonizes these rules throughout the EU.

Global battery production network

In the future, Mercedes-Benz Cars’ global battery production network will consist of nine factories at seven locations on three continents. There will be two factories each in Kamenz (Germany) and Stuttgart-Untertürkheim (Germany) as well as one factory each in Sindelfingen (Germany), Jawor (Poland), Beijing (China), Tuscaloosa (United States), and Bangkok (Thailand). It will ensure that production remains flexible and able to respond to changes in demand in individual markets.

Gold Standard

The Gold Standard is the highest quality standard for carbon-offsetting projects. Gold Standard projects not only avoid CO2, they also contribute to the project location’s sustainable environmental and social development. The Gold Standard was developed under the direction of the World Wildlife Fund (WWF) and with the assistance of the German Ministry of the Environment.

Greenhouse Gas Protocol (GHG)

The Greenhouse Gas Protocol (or GHG Protocol for short) is currently the most common series of accounting standards for greenhouse gas emissions.

High-voltage batteries

High-voltage (HV) batteries supply the electric motors of electric and hybrid vehicles with energy. They can be recharged. They use chemical processes to store energy that can be released again as needed.

Hybrid drive unit

Hybrid drive units are used in cutting-edge hybrid vehicle concepts. They encompass a torque converter, an engine separator clutch, and an electrical machine.

ISO 14001

Created by the International Organization for Standardization, ISO 14001 is a world-leading standard for environmental management systems.

Life cycle assessment

The life cycle assessment (LCA) is a systematic analysis of the environmental impact of products, processes, and services along the entire value chain – from development to the use phase and recycling.

Machine learning

Computer programs that use machine learning can independently solve problems with the help of algorithms. Machine learning is an element of artificial intelligence.


The North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) is a trade bloc between Canada, the United States, and Mexico. The agreement aims to promote trade between the member countries and make investments easier.


The New European Driving Cycle (NEDC) is a legally prescribed testing process for measuring the fuel consumption and emissions of vehicles. This process was replaced by the WLTP as of September 1, 2017.


Non-governmental organization


NOX is the general term for the nitrogen oxides that are especially relevant to air pollution: nitrogen oxide (NO) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2). The gases contribute to the formation of smog and acid rain and also influence the ozone layer.


The Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), which is based in Paris, is an international organization encompassing 36 member countries that are committed to democracy and a market economy.

Onboard charger performance

Onboard chargers are charging devices that are permanently installed in electrically powered vehicles in order to charge the battery. The higher a charger’s performance, the faster it can recharge a vehicle.

Paris Agreement

On December 12, 2015, 197 countries adopted the agreement by consensus during the United Nations Climate Change Conference in Paris. The agreement aims to limit global warming to significantly less than two degrees Celsius, compared to pre-industrial values.


The maximum weight that a vehicle can take on in addition to its empty load is referred to as payload.

Plug-in hybrid (PHEV)

A plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) has a hybrid drive system whose battery can be charged either by a combustion engine or by the power grid.


See Drivetrain

Privacy by design

Privacy by design is data protection by means of technology design. The basic principle of this approach is that personal data can be best protected if software and hardware are designed and developed to comply with data protection regulations from the very start.

Product specifications

Product specifications contain all of the requirements that a vehicle has to meet. They serve as the guiding principle for a vehicle’s development and production.

Range extender

Range extenders are additional major assemblies that an electric vehicle can contain to extend its range.

Real Driving Emissions (RDE) testing method

The RDE testing method is a measurement procedure for testing the actual emissions behavior of vehicles in road traffic under real-life conditions.


Recuperation is the recovery of electrical energy that would otherwise be lost as heat.

Redundant safety systems

Safety-relevant functions are duplicated in redundant safety systems. If the primary braking system fails, for example, the secondary system will be responsible for braking.


In the remanufacturing process, used Mercedes-Benz genuine parts are reconditioned in such a way that their functionality, safety, and quality correspond to those of a new part.


Components are reused in order to save costs and materials. When a material is no longer needed in one area, it can be reused somewhere else. This can save primary raw materials, for example, whose extraction might impact the environment.

Ride hailing

Ride hailing refers to a form of mobility in which a person uses an app to request a ride. Unlike the case with ridesharing, the vehicle generally is not shared with other passengers.


Ridesharing refers to the shared use of a vehicle to transport passengers from one place to another.

SAE Level/automated and autonomous driving

Automated vehicles help drivers perform tasks that motorists used to do on their own. There are five different levels of automation: Driver Assistance (SAE Level 1), Partial Automation (SAE Level 2), Conditional Automation (SAE Level 3), High Automation (SAE Level 4), and Full Automation (SAE Level 5). The degree of automation increases with each level and the amount of control the driver has over a vehicle declines accordingly.

Science Based Targets Initiative

The Science Based Targets Initiative (SBTI) is a joint initiative of the CDP, the UN Global Compact, the World Resources Institute, and the World Wildlife Fund (WWF). It aims to encourage companies to set targets for reducing greenhouse gas emissions in line with the level of decarbonization that scientists are calling for in order to limit global warming to less than 1.5° C/2° C compared to preindustrial temperatures.

Scope 1 emissions

Greenhouse gas emissions caused by a company’s own activities, e.g. through the generation of energy and heat in its own power plants or the operation of its own fleet of vehicles.

Scope 2 emissions

Greenhouse gas emissions caused by the generation and transport of purchased energy, e.g. electricity or district heat.

Scope 3 emissions

Greenhouse gas emissions caused by upstream and downstream activities. These include greenhouse gases emitted in the supply chain and emissions caused by our vehicles that are operated by customers.

Sled testing

Sled tests are crash tests in which a vehicle does not collide with a wall or other object. Instead, the vehicle body and the components to be tested are mounted onto a sled that is then suddenly braked. As a result, there is no actual collision.

SORT cycles

SORT cycles are standardized tests for city buses. These tests were initiated by the UITP (International Association of Public Transport). The tests aim to make the vehicles’ fuel consumption values comparable.

Tank-to-wheel (TtW)

Unlike the more comprehensive well-to-wheel assessment, tank-to-wheel assessments take into account the chain of cause and effect from the time energy (e. g. gasoline, electricity) is put into a vehicle until it is released during driving.

Tier 1

Tier 1 refers to the first upstream stage of the value chain, i.e. the direct suppliers. The other stages of the value chain (all the previous suppliers) are referred to as Tier 1 suppliers.

UN Global Compact

The United Nations (UN) Global Compact is a pact concluded between companies and the UN in order to make globalization more socially and environmentally friendly. The companies regularly report to the UN on the progress they make.


The VECTO (Vehicle Energy Consumption Calculation Tool) is a new simulation tool that was developed by the European Commission for determining the CO2 emissions and fuel consumption of heavy-duty commercial vehicles (trucks, buses, and coaches) with a gross vehicle weight of over 3.5 metric tons.


A wallbox is a wall-mounted charging station for electric vehicles.

Well-to-wheel (WtW)

A well-to-wheel assessment takes into account not only driving operation (as is the case with a tank-to-wheel assessment) but also the production of the energy carrier, such as electricity or gasoline.


The Worldwide Harmonized Light Vehicles Test Procedure (WLTP) is an international measurement technique for determining how much fuel a vehicle consumes and whether its emissions stay within the prescribed limits. The WLTP replaced the former NEDC measurement procedure on September 1, 2017.


Daimler AG Mercedesstraße 120
70372 Stuttgart
Tel.: +49 711 17 0

Represented by the Board of Management: Ola Källenius (Chairman), Martin Daum, Renata Jungo Brüngger, Wilfried Porth, Markus Schäfer, Britta Seeger, Hubertus Troska, Harald Wilhelm

Chairman of the Supervisory Board: Bernd Pischetsrieder

Commercial Register Stuttgart, No. HRB 19360
VAT registration number: DE 81 25 26 315