48-volt system/on-board electrical system

An on-board electrical system refers to the totality of electrical components in a vehicle. A 48-volt network is much more effective because it uses an operating voltage of 48 volts instead of the commonly used 12 volts. This makes it better suited for electric drive systems that consume a lot of electricity.

Active and passive safety of vehicles

Active safety systems, also referred to as driver assistance systems, help to prevent accidents from occurring in the first place. Active safety promotes accident prevention. By contrast, passive safety systems provide protection during a collision in order to mitigate the consequences of an accident.


Aggregates are materials that are added to a mixture in order to have a positive effect on their properties. For example, crushed natural or artificial rock is used to make concrete and asphalt.

Airflow control

Airflow control systems regulate the volume of incoming and outgoing air in ventilation systems.

Artificial intelligence (AI)

Artificial intelligence (AI) refers to computer systems that have features of human intelligence. AI systems can, for example, learn independently, draw conclusions, or improve themselves.

Automated Lane Keeping System (ALKS)

An Automated Lane Keeping System (ALKS) is a technology that autonomously controls a vehicle’s lateral and longitudinal motion for a long period of time. During this time, the ALKS instead of the driver has primary control over the vehicle.

Base load

With regard to power supply, the base load is the minimum amount of electric power that has to be generated in order to ensure grid stability.

Big Picture Integrity 2019

Big Picture Integrity is a Group-wide employee survey for evaluating the integrity and compliance culture at Daimler. All employees with a valid business e-mail address were in scope of the survey.

Car-to-X communication

Car-to-X communication is based on technologies that enable vehicles to share information in real time with one another and with other systems that are part of the traffic infrastructure (e.g. by means of Wi-Fi or mobile communications).

Clean Development Mechanism (CDM)

The Clean Development Mechanism (for environmentally compatible development) was introduced as part of the Kyoto Protocol in order to make it easier for industrialized countries to achieve their targets for reducing greenhouse gas emissions and at the same time promote technology transfer to developing countries. The mechanism enables emission reduction measures to be implemented in developing countries and the resulting decreases to be certified. The corresponding certificates (Certified Emission Reductions/CER) can be credited to the reduction targets of the industrialized countries.

Climate Pledge

The Climate Pledge is a voluntary commitment by companies to fulfill the goals of the Paris Agreement on climate protection ten years earlier than prescribed. The companies who have taken this pledge promise to make their business CO2-neutral by 2040. The Climate Pledge was created in 2020 by Amazon and Global Optimism.

CO2 fleet compliance

In addition to limits that individual vehicle models may not exceed for their type approval (e.g. regarding pollutant emissions), the EU also sets CO2 fleet compliance requirements on the basis of the average weight of a manufacturer’s fleet. The manufacturer’s fleet of new vehicles may not exceed this limit.

Code of conduct

A company’s code of conduct provides employees with guidance and encompasses guidelines for responsible, ethical, and legally compliant behavior. In most cases, the guidelines also apply to third parties such as business partners and suppliers.

Concept safety

Concept safety in this context means a high degree of safety that is immanent in how high-voltage components are integrated into the vehicle.

Corporate Average Fuel Economy (CAFE) standards

Corporate Average Fuel Economy (CAFE) refers to a legally stipulated restriction on the average fuel consumption of a vehicle fleet in the United States. Automakers have to achieve the CAFE standards for their fleets of cars and light trucks in order to be able to sell vehicles in the United States. The limits are recalculated each year.

Cowl chassis

A cowl chassis is a truck chassis that includes front fenders as well as a hood and an instrument panel. It is used for customers who want their own body and cab.

Data processing register

Ever since the EU introduced the General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR), every company needs a data processing register. This documents all of the relevant information about the processing of personal data (e.g. a customer’s name and e-mail address).


Decarbonization is the switch to a carbon-free economy.

Dry/wet separation technologies

Paint separation systems are technologies that can bind excess paint particles that are released into the air when vehicles are painted. Wet separation uses water to clean the air. Dry separation is a more environmentally friendly variant, in which a dry binding substance (e.g. stone dust) is used in order to reduce the amount of water and chemicals that are needed.

Due diligence

In general, due diligence processes involve careful examinations, analyses, and assessments of a company. Human rights due diligence encompasses measures that a company employs in order to detect and responsibly manage human rights-related risks in its business operations, its supply chain, and the services it uses.


E-fuels are synthetic fuels that are produced by means of electricity from water and carbon dioxide (CO2).

ESG criteria

The abbreviation ESG stands for Environment, Social, and Governance. Within the context of sustainable finance, this abbreviation is used when investment decisions take into account environmental, social, and responsible governance aspects.

Ethics by design

The “ethics by design” principle refers to the consideration of ethical questions during the development of products — for example, those involving the use of artificial intelligence.

EU taxonomy

EU taxonomy (also referred to as Sustainable Finance Taxonomy) is a classification system that was developed by the European Commission in order to create a shared understanding of the sustainability of business operations within the EU. The aim is to assess business activities throughout the EU according to their sustainability in order to facilitate corresponding financial decisions.

Euro 6d-Temp standard

The Euro 6d-Temp standard is a temporary emissions standard that has applied to new vehicle models since September 2018 and that sets limits for pollutant emissions into the atmosphere. The RDE procedure was introduced at the same time as the new standard. The more stringent Euro 6d emissions standard will go into effect in 2021.

European Union Emission Trading Scheme (EU ETS)

The European Union Emission Trading Scheme is a climate-protection tool for the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions. A government-stipulated upper limit states how many tons of CO2 may be emitted in total. A company needs an emission allowance for every ton of CO2. These emission allowances can be freely traded on the market. However, the number of these allowances is limited. This results in a price for CO2 emissions in order to give companies an incentive to reduce their emissions.


When painting cars, a filler is used to smooth irregularities in the body surface and provide a primer for additional layers of paint.

Gold Standard

The Gold Standard is the highest quality standard for carbon offsetting projects. Gold Standard projects not only avoid CO2, they also contribute to the project location’s sustainable environmental and social development. The Gold Standard was developed under the direction of the WWF and with the assistance of the German Ministry of the Environment.

Green bonds

Green bonds are securities with a fixed interest rate. They are used to raise capital for sustainable projects such as for renewable sources of energy and sustainable mobility solutions.

Green charging

Green charging refers to the charging of electric vehicles with green electricity.

Greenhouse Gas Protocol (GHG Protocol)

The Greenhouse Gas Protocol (or GHG Protocol for short) is currently the most commonly used series of accounting standards for greenhouse gas emissions.

HVO diesel

HVO (hydrogenated vegetable oil) diesel is a biofuel that is manufactured by hydrogenating (adding hydrogen atoms to) production waste, vegetable oils, or other materials.

Integrity and Compliance Pulse Check

The Integrity and Compliance Pulse Check is a representative Group-wide random-sample survey for the evaluation of our integrity culture. Approximately 25,000 employees with a valid e-mail address have been in scope of the random-sample survey.

Intrinsic safety

Intrinsic safety is a technical property of a system or device. Special designs ensure that even a breakdown does not cause a dangerous situation to occur.

LiDAR technology

LiDAR (Light Detection and Ranging) is a method for optically measuring distances. LiDAR sensors detect objects by using a laser to make hundreds of thousands of distance measurements per second in order to generate a 3D image of a vehicle’s surroundings.

Linear accelerator

Linear accelerators can generate high-energy electron or X-ray beams by accelerating charged elementary particles in a strong linear magnetic field. Among other things, they are used in medicine for radiation therapy. However, they are also employed in industry in order to look inside thick-walled components.

Live traffic information

Live traffic information systems supply vehicles with traffic data in real time.

Load case

In accident research, a load case is a possible accident scenario that describes a specific effect on a vehicle.

Machine learning

Computer programs that use machine learning can independently solve problems with the help of algorithms. Machine learning is an element of artificial intelligence.

Malicious code

Malicious code or malware refers to computer programs developed to carry out damaging tasks such as stealing passwords or other sensitive data.

Management levels

The managers of the organizational hierarchy of Daimler are divided into the management levels 1 through 5. Level 5 is the lowest of these levels, while Level 1 is the highest. Above it is only the Board of Management level.


The New European Driving Cycle (NEDC) is a legally prescribed testing process for measuring the fuel consumption and emissions of vehicles. This process was replaced by the WLTP test procedure as of September 1, 2017.

Notice of violation

A notice of violation is a written notification from a government agency about a violation of the law.


Based in Paris, the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) is an international organization encompassing 37 member countries that are committed to democracy and a market economy.

On-board diagnostics

Among other things, on-board diagnostics monitor a vehicle’s exhaust behavior during drives. To do so, an in-vehicle diagnostic system monitors all of the exhaust-related components and stores the information about any faults that arise.

Onboard charger

Onboard chargers are charging devices that are permanently installed in electrically powered vehicles in order to charge the battery.

Partial load

Partial load refers to a machine’s mean operating condition between full load (100 percent of possible output) and no load (the machine is switched off).

Partner protection

Partner protection refers to the protection of occupants in the respective other vehicle during traffic accidents that involve two vehicles.

Peak loads

Peak loads occur in power grids, for example, when energy demand suddenly increases steeply for a short period of time. In order to meet this demand and ensure that supply is uninterrupted, more electricity has to be fed into the grid at short notice. This can be done by means of battery storage devices, for example, or by pumped-storage electrical power stations.

Plug-in hybrid (PHEV)

A plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) has a hybrid drive system whose battery can be charged either by a combustion engine or by the power grid.

Privacy by design

Privacy by design is data protection by means of technology design. The basic principle of this approach is that personal data can be best protected if software and hardware are designed and developed to comply with data protection regulations from the very start.

Rated thermal input

The rated thermal input stands for the thermal energy that can be fed to a combustion plant in continuous operation by burning fuel. After energy losses are subtracted, the result shows the thermal output of the respective heating system.

Real Driving Emissions (RDE) testing method

The RDE testing method is a measurement procedure for testing the actual emissions behavior of vehicles in road traffic under real-life conditions.

Recuperation/degree of recuperation

Recuperation is the recovery of electrical energy, e.g. during braking, that would otherwise be lost as frictional heat. The degree of recuperation expresses the ratio of recovered energy to employed energy in percent.

Redundant safety systems

Redundant safety systems are duplicated safety-relevant functions. If the primary braking system fails, for example, the secondary system will be responsible for braking.

Renewable Energy Directive

The EU passed the Renewable Energy Directive in 2009 in order to promote the use of energy from renewable sources. This directive, which was most recently amended in 2018, aims to increase the proportion of renewable energy in the European electricity mix to at least 32 percent by 2030.

Residual energy

The cables of switched-off machines can contain residual energy. This can become dangerous if residual electrical or mechanical energy leads to sudden movements of machinery, for example.

Restraint systems

Restraint systems are in-vehicle safety systems that keep the vehicle occupants in their seats (e.g. seatbelts).

Ride hailing

Ride hailing refers to a form of mobility in which a person uses an app to request a vehicle and driver for a transport service. Unlike the case with ridesharing, the vehicle is not generally shared with other passengers.


In the field of law, a rights-holder is a person or other legal entity (organization or living organism) that has specific, legally recognized rights.

Roller test rig

A roller test rig is an instrument for testing various performance aspects of a vehicle. To do this, the vehicle’s wheels are attached to a roller to enable the simulation of acceleration effects. It allows drive and braking power to be measured, for example, as well as emissions.

SAE Level/automated and autonomous driving

Automated vehicles help drivers perform tasks that motorists used to do on their own. There are five different levels of automation: Driver Assistance (SAE Level 1), Partial Automation (SAE Level 2), Conditional Automation (SAE Level 3), High Automation (SAE Level 4), and Full Automation (SAE Level 5). The degree of automation increases with each level and the amount of control the driver has over a vehicle declines accordingly.

Science Based Targets Initiative

The Science Based Targets Initiative (SBTI) is a joint initiative of the CDP, the UN Global Compact, the World Resources Institute, and the World Wildlife Fund (WWF). It aims to encourage companies to set targets for reducing greenhouse gas emissions in line with the level of decarbonization that scientists are calling for in order to limit global warming to less than 1.5° C/2° C compared to preindustrial temperatures.

Sled testing

Sled tests are crash tests in which a vehicle does not collide with a wall or other object. Instead, the vehicle body and the components to be tested are mounted onto a sled that is then suddenly braked. As a result, there is no actual collision.

SORT cycles

SORT cycles are standardized tests for city buses. These tests were initiated by the UITP (International Association of Public Transport). They aim to make the vehicles’ fuel consumption values comparable.

Sustainability Accounting Standards Board (SASB)

The Sustainability Accounting Standards Board (SASB) is a non-profit organization in the United States that has developed sector-specific standards for sustainability reporting.

Tank-to-wheel (TtW)

Unlike the more comprehensive well-to-wheel assessment, tank-to-wheel assessments take into account the chain of cause and effect from the time energy (e.g. gasoline or electricity) is put into a vehicle until it is converted into kinetic energy during driving.

Task Force on Climate-related Financial Disclosures (TCFD)

The Task Force on Climate-related Financial Disclosures (TCFD) is a corporate reporting initiative that was created by the Financial Stability Board. Its long-term goal is to incorporate climate-related opportunities and risks into companies’ business and financial reports. To this end, it published recommendations in 2017 on how businesses should conduct uniform climate reporting.


Telematics (a composite word that combines telecommunications with informatics) is a technology that combines mobile data communication with the computer processing of this information. Telematics solutions/services in vehicles continuously collect and evaluate positioning and vehicle data, for example.

Tier 1

Tier 1 refers to the first upstream stage of the value chain, i.e. the direct suppliers. The other stages of the value chain (all the previous suppliers) are referred to as Tier 2 to Tier n suppliers.


A turbocompressor is a machine that can compress air. Compressed air is used, for example, to drive machines in industrial production. Unlike “normal” compressors, turbocompressors are structured like a turbine and have aerodynamic properties, which make them especially energy-efficient.

UN Global Compact

The United Nations (UN) Global Compact is a pact concluded between companies and the UN in order to make globalization more socially and environmentally friendly. The companies regularly report to the UN on the progress they make.

UN Principles for Responsible Investment (UNPRI)

The six UN Principles for Responsible Investment were initiated by an international investor network. They aim to make it easier to understand the effects of investment activities on ESG issues and help the signatories to take ESG criteria into account in their investment decisions.

Underfloor SCR catalytic converter

Selective catalytic reduction (SCR) is a technology for reducing nitrogen oxides in exhaust gases. An underfloor SCR catalytic converter is used for the aftertreatment of vehicle exhaust. It employs chemical reactions to convert the pollutants in the exhaust gas into non-toxic substances.

Unsprung mass

The unsprung mass refers to the components of a vehicle that are affected by direct impacts on the roadway. These components include the tires, rims, brakes, and wheel bearings.


The VECTO (Vehicle Energy Consumption Calculation Tool) is a new simulation tool that was developed by the European Commission for determining the CO2 emissions and fuel consumption of heavy-duty commercial vehicles (trucks, buses, and touring coaches) with a GVW of over 3.5 metric tons.

Voluntary Safety Self-Assessment

Voluntary Safety Self-Assessments (VSSA) are based on a guide from the United States’ National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA). Companies that are engaged in the testing or deployment of automated driving functions can document and publish their procedures and evaluations of the safety of such systems on a voluntary basis.

Waste hierarchy

A waste hierarchy defines and prioritizes the various approaches for handling waste. The most important measures are those that are especially environmentally compatible. The EU’s Waste Framework Directive defines the following five hierarchy levels:

  1. Prevention
  2. Preparing for reuse
  3. Recycling
  4. Other recovery, especially incineration for the generation of energy and use as a filling material
  5. Disposal

Well to wheel (WtW)

A well-to-wheel assessment takes into account not only driving operation (as is the case with a tank-to-wheel assessment) but also the production of the energy carrier, such as electricity or gasoline.


The Worldwide Harmonized Light Vehicles Test Procedure (WLTP) is an international measurement technique for determining how much fuel a vehicle consumes and whether its emissions stay within the prescribed limits. The WLTP replaced the former measurement procedure (NEDC) on September 1, 2017.


Daimler AG Mercedesstraße 120
70372 Stuttgart
Tel.: +49 711 17 0

Represented by the Board of Management: Ola Källenius (Chairman), Martin Daum, Renata Jungo Brüngger, Wilfried Porth, Markus Schäfer, Britta Seeger, Hubertus Troska, Harald Wilhelm

Chairman of the Supervisory Board: Bernd Pischetsrieder

Commercial Register Stuttgart, No. HRB 19360
VAT registration number: DE 81 25 26 315